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Emergency health measures to be taken in the vicinity of the volcano depend on the type of eruptive event. The local authorities can advise you on the type of eruption that is expected.
The different types of eruptive events are:
The only effective prevention measure in the case of an explosion is early evacuation. The local health services and population should get updated information from the authorities on the areas at risk from impact and the probabilities of explosion. The risk to health is in trauma, skin burns, and lacerations from volcanic glass. In case you happen to be in the area, you should reduce exposure (do not go outside).
Consequences of this event are glowing avalanches (gas and hot ash), ash flows and falls, lightning and forest fires. The health impact from this type of event is massive skin and lung burns, and asphyxiation. In Saint Pierre, Martinique, 30,000 people died in 1902. The only preventive measure is early evacuation. These eruptions cause wide dispersion of ashes which, contrary to glowing avalanches, are not at such a high temperature.
This type of eruptive event causes floods and hot mudflows. The eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia took the lives of 23,000 persons in the city of Armero in 1985. (In Ecuador, the Guagua Pichincha Volcano is not covered by snow.)
The magmatic eruptions create lava flows and forest fires. The path of these flows is predictable and the local authorities should be consulted for this information. Impact is minimal due to the relatively slow progress of lava flows. Preventive measures include limited evacuation.
Gas emissions such as S02, CO, CO2H2S, HF pool in low-lying areas and are easily inhaled. The impact on health is that they cause asphyxiation and airways constriction. Preventive measures include evacuation, respiratory protective equipment for geologists and rescue crews. A wet handkerchief is better than nothing at all.
Volcanic ash is not ash at all. It is pulverized rock. A one-inch layer of dry ash weighs ten pounds per square foot as it lands. It often contains small pieces of light, expanded lava called pumice or cinders.
Fresh volcanic ash may be harsh, acid, gritty, glassy, smelly, and thoroughly unpleasant. Although gases are usually too diluted to constitute danger to a normal person, the combination of acidic gas and ash which may be present within a few miles of the eruption could cause lung damage to small infants, very old and infirm, or those already suffering from severe respiratory illnesses
Note: Ash is made up of abrasive rock; therefore, it blocks and damages motors and scratches automobile paint.
In consultation with several experts, PAHO offers these recommendations for the general public.
In the case of moderate or abundante ashfall, particularly fine particles, bronchial asthma and other chronic respiratory conditions may be aggravated, in children as well as in adults. Death is highly improbable, although it could occur in persons with serious symptoms if they do not protect themselves from the ashes. Ash particles are abrasive and can also cause abrasions in the cornea.
People should remain inside buildings as much as possible during ashfall and its dissemination by traffic, in order to avoid trouble and injury. Light masks and eye protectors should be stored for workers who will clean the streets of the ashes, for emergency crews, police and other employees who will have to work in open spaces during ashfall. Suitable masks for children are not available. The recommended masks for general use in this case is Class FFP 1S or FFP 2S (3M or Respair). Although these are the masks that are recommended internationally, others may be sought out in the local markets and adapted to accordingly.
People should know that breathing ashes is not very harmful for those with no serious respiratory condition. In Quito, the air is habitually contaminated from vehicle exhaust and no special measures are taken to protect the population.
In summary, three types of population are considered:
For those in Groups 1 and 2, it would be ideal to offer them masks that retain small particles of ash. These masks should be stored in health centers with clear instructions for the users. For the general population that has to leave their homes for short periods, any type of light mask, handkerchief, towel, etc. will do. No real harm is expected – but it is bothersome.
The Effects of Volcanic Eruption on the Environment
Surprisingly, you don't have to live in the shadow of an active volcano to be affected by an eruption. While there are certainly immediate and devastating consequences for anyone close to an erupting volcano, there are secondary effects to these massive events that can linger for years. The geologic record tells the story of historic eruptions that literally altered the course of life on Earth.
Especially powerful volcanic eruptions release what are known as pyroclastic flows. These are clouds of hot gas, dust, rock and lava that race down the side of a volcano during an eruption, scorching and leveling anything in their path. The gases in the flow can reach temperatures of 1,500 degrees Fahrenheit. After the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington, the landscape resembled an alien world. Entire forests were blown over and then covered in ash and rock.
The gases released from erupting volcanoes have a variety of effects on the environment, both immediate and longer term. Acidic gases like hydrogen sulfide can be deadly at high exposure levels. When propelled high into the atmosphere, volcanic gases eventually precipitate back to earth as acid rain. This kind of rain is stressful to plant life and can poison water supplies. Surprisingly, volcanic gases can also be a source of life. The carbon dioxide released from active vents can stimulate plant growth. Many bacteria and microorganisms thrive in the toxins that are fatal to most life forms.
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Volcanic ash is the very fine particulate matter ejected from a volcano during an eruption. While it's not toxic by itself, ash clouds can certainly bring life to a halt. The material can pile up on rooftops until the structures collapse. Ash makes it hard to breathe, getting in nasal passages and airways. In the eyes, volcanic ash can lead to scratches and irritation. Livestock and plant life are vulnerable to heavy ash because they can't get out of the way.
Volcanic eruptions alter and taint water supplies in a number of ways. Toxic gases condense in clouds and fall to Earth as rain, polluting creeks and streams. Underground seeps of these gases can poison water at the source. Ash and dust that settle on cities can gum up the works of water treatment facilities. Eruptions which rapidly melt snow or glaciers lead to cataclysmic flood events, scouring river valleys bare.
The magnitude of a volcanic eruption dictates the amount of change that the climate will undergo. A relatively large eruption can cool the overall surface temperature by a few degrees. While that doesn't sound like a lot, averaged out over the entire globe a few degrees would be noticeable, but not really dramatic. At the far end of the spectrum, an eruption like Indonesia's Tambora volcano in 1815 would alter daily life for everyone. The 1815 eruption led to the "year without a summer" in New England, where harvests failed and snow fell all year long. Thankfully, these climate convulsions are short lived, as the gas and dust from even the largest eruptions settle out of the atmosphere pretty quickly.
Types of volcanic eruptions
During a volcanic eruption, lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and blocks), and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure. Several types of volcanic eruptions have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series.
There are three different metatypes of eruptions. The most well-observed are magmatic eruptions, which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward. Phreatomagmatic eruptions are another type of volcanic eruption, driven by the compression of gas within magma, the direct opposite of the process powering magmatic activity. The last eruptive metatype is the phreatic eruption, which is driven by the superheating of steam via contact with magma; these eruptive types often exhibit no magmatic release, instead causing the granulation of existing rock.
Within these wide-defining eruptive types are several subtypes. The weakest are Hawaiian and submarine, then Strombolian, followed by Vulcanian and Surtseyan. The stronger eruptive types are Pelean eruptions, followed by Plinian eruptions; the strongest eruptions are called "Ultra Plinian." Subglacial and phreatic eruptions are defined by their eruptive mechanism, and vary in strength. An important measure of eruptive strength is Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), a magnitudic scale ranging from 0 to 8 that often correlates to eruptive types.
example Of Volcano
. Central American Volcanic Arc
Volcano The Stud
the volcano produced lavas, magma and does that tuning the Earth and cause erosion
The volcano is dangerous for people.
The volcano produces toxic gases inside.
The volcano makes the movement of the Earth feel.
The volcano is born from the center of the Earth for a thousand years.
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